Positioning, also known as localization, is the process of determining the spatial position of an object or person. Accurate positioning is criticalfor numerous applications. The familiar GlobalPositioning System (GPS), originally a U.S. mili-tary system, is now in everyday use around the world, often in new and unexpected ways. Unfor-tunately, GPS is not suitable in many indoor sit-uations. To obtain location information using GPS, a device must be able to receive signals from a number of GPS satellites, and this isoften not possible indoors. Even when GPS posi-tioning is available, it may not be accurate enough for many indoor applications. Despite decades of research into indoor positioning using technologies such as radio systems based on wireless local area networks (LANs), there is still no system that is cheap, accurate, and widely available .
The fundamental problem in radio based systems is multi-path propagation. Radio signals may reach a receiver by both direct line of sight and multiple reflected paths. This means it has no simple and reliable way of deter mining the distance or direction of the transmitter from the received signal. The widespread introduction of white LEDs for illumination provides an unprecedented opportunity for visible light positioning (VLP) to fill this gap, and form the basis for a widely available, economical, and easy-to-use indoor system. Look up in almost any building and you will be able to see multiple light fittings,, a receiver could be designed to receive line-of-sight signals from multiple light sources. The introduction o LED lighting creates a new opportunity for creating an indoor positioning system. This was no possible with conventional lighting, but LEDs have a number of key advantages. First, LEDs can be modulated at much higher frequencies than conventional lighting, so the signals required for positioning can readily be transmitted at frequencies that do not cause visible flick-er. Second, although LED lights are initially more expensive, they have a much longer life-time, typically several years. This means that the added cost of constructing lights with the extra functionality required for positioning will be relatively smaller, and the benefits longer lasting.
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